Mathematics, Probabilities and DNA
  "Now we know that the cell itself is far more complex than we had imagined. It includes thousands of functioning enzmes, each one of them a complex machine itself. Futhermore, each enzyme comes into being in responce to a gene, a strand of DNA. The information content of the gene in its complexity must be as great as that of the enzyme it controls.
  "A medium protein might include about 300 amino acids. The DNA gene controlling this would have about 1000 nucleotides in its chain. Since there are four kinds of nucleotides in a DNA chain, one consisting of 1000 links could exist in 4x10[to the 1000 power] different forms.

  "Using a little algebra (Logarithms) we can see that 4 [to the 1000 power] is equivalent to 10 [to the 600 power]. Ten multiplied by itself 600 times gives the figure 10 followed by 600 zeros! This number is completely beyond our comprehension." *Frank Salisbury, "Doubts about the Modern Theory of Evolution, "American Biology Teacher, September 1971, pp. 336-338.

Hairs on an average head                           2X 10 to the 6 power
Seconds in a year                                         3X 10 to the7 power
Retirement age (0 to 65) in seconds           2X 10 to the 9 power
World population                                          5X 10 to the 9 power
Miles [1.6 km] in a light year                      6X 10 to the 10 power
Sands grains on all shores                                  10 to the 22 power 
Observed stars                                                    10 to the 22 power
Water drops in all the oceans                             10 to the 26 power
Candle power of the sun                               3X  10 to the 27 power 
Electrons in the universe                                     10 to the 80 power

 "Suppose we wanted to build a machine capable of reaching into bins for all of its parts, and capable of assembling from those parts a second machine just like itself." *Marcel J.E. Goley, "Reflections of a Communications Engineer, "in Analytical Chenistry, June 1961. Probability of a machine assembling another with 1500 parts. 1 out of 10 to the 450 power for sucess.

"Based on probability factors..any viable DNA strand having over 84 nucleotides cannot be the result of hapharzed mutations. At that stage, the probablities are 1 in 4.8 X 10 to the 50 power. Such a number, if written out, would read: 480,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

    "Mathematicians agree that any requisite number beyond 10X 10 [ to the 50 power] has, statistically, a zero probability of occurance (and even that gives it the 'benefit of the doubt'). Any species known to us, including 'the smallest single-cell bacteria, 'have enormously large numbers of nucleotides than 100 or 1000. In fact, single cell bacteria display about 3,000,000 nucleotides, aligned in a very specific sequence. This means, that there is no mathematical probability whatever for any known species to have been the product of random occurance--random mutations (to use the evolutionist's favotite expression)." *I.L. Cohen, Darwin was Wrong  (1984), p. 205. 

Much more from The Evolution Handbook

 Cows to Whales -
 Soup -  
           Whales -


HOME and Live Broadcasting

Free Counter