Big Bang and the Universe
"It seems to be one of the fundamental features of nature that fundamental physicals laws are described in terms of a mathematical theory of great beauty and power, needing quite a high standard on mathematics for one to understand it..One could perhaps describe the situation by saying that God is a mathematican of a very high order, and He used very advanced mathematics in constructing the universe." *P.A.M. Dirac, "The Evolution of the Physicist's of Nature", in Scientific American, May 1963, p. 53
"If the fireball had expanded only .1 percent faster, the present rate of expansion would have been 3 x 103 times as great. Had the initial expansion rate been 0.1 percent less, the Universe would have expanded to only 3 x 10-6 of its present radius before collapsing. At this maximum radius the density of ordinary matter would have been 10-12 grm/m3, over 1016 times as great as the present mass density. No stars could have formed in such a Universe, for it would not have existed long enough to form stars."—*R.H. Dickey, Gravitation and the Universe (1969), p. 62.
"Since matter and antimatter are equivalent in all respects but that of electromagnetic charge oppositeness, any force [the Big Bang] that would create one should have to create the other, and the universe should be made of equal quantities of each. This is a dilemma. Theory tells us there should be antimatter out there, and observation refuses to back it up."—*Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s New Guide to Science, p. 343.
"We are pretty sure from our observations that the universe today contains matter, but very little if any antimatter."—*Victor Weisskopf, "The Origin of the Universe," American Scientist, 71, p. 479.
"Attempts to explain both the expansion of the universe and the condensation of galaxies must be largely contradictory so long as gravitation is the only force field under consideration. For if the expansive kinetic energy of matter is adequate to give universal expansion against the gravitational field, it is adequate to prevent local condensation under gravity, and vice versa. That is why, essentially, the formation of galaxies is passed over with little comment in most systems of cosmology."—*F. Hoyle and *T. Gold, quoted in *D.B. Larson, Universe in Motion (1984). p. 8.
"In the sequence of atomic weight numbers 5 and 8 are vacant. That is, there is no stable atom of mass 5 or mass 8 . . The question then is: How can the build-up of elements by neutron capture get by these gaps? The process could not go beyond helium 4 and even if it spanned this gap it would be stopped again at mass 8. This basic objection to Gamow’s theory is a great disappointment in view of the promise and philosophical attractiveness of the idea."—*William A. Fowler, California Institute of Technology, quoted in Creation Science, p. 90.
"Supernovae are quite different . . and astronomers are eager to study their spectra in detail. The main difficulty is their rarity. About 1 per 650 years is the average for any one galaxy . . The 1885 supernova of Andromeda was the closest to us in the last 350 years."—*Isaac Asimov, New Guide to Science (1984), p. 48.
"As IBM’s Philip E. Seiden, put it: ‘The standard Big Bang model does not give rise to lumpiness. That model assumes the universe started out as a globally smooth, homogeneous expanding gas. If you apply the laws of physics to this model, you get a universe that is uniform, a cosmic vastness of evenly distributed atoms with no organization of any kind.’ No galaxies, no stars, no planets, no nothing. Needless to say, the night sky, dazzling in its lumps, clumps, and clusters, says otherwise. How then did the lumps get there? No one can say."—*Ben Patrusky, "Why is the Cosmos ‘Lumpy’?" Science 81, June 1981, p. 96.
"The main efforts of investigators have been in papering over holes in the Big Bang theory, to build up an idea that has become ever more complex and cumbersome . . I have little hesitation in saying that a sickly pall now hangs over the Big Bang theory. When a pattern of facts becomes set against a theory, experience shows that the theory rarely recovers."—*Sir Fred Hoyle, "The Big Bang Theory under Attack," Science Digest, May 1984, p. 84.
"The sun has been contracting about 0.1% per century . . corresponding to a shrinkage rate of about 5 feet per hour [15.24 dm]."—*G.B. Lublihn, Physics Today, Vol. 32, No. 17, 1979.
"Jupiter . . radiates twice as much energy as it absorbs from the sun through a contraction and cooling process."—*Star Date radio broadcast, November 8, 1990.
"Saturn emits 50% more heat than it absorbs from the sun."—*Science Frontiers, No. 73, January-February 1991.
"Astronomers were startled, and laymen amazed, when in 1979 Jack Eddy, of the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder, Colorado, claimed that the sun was shrinking at such a rate that, if the decline did not reverse, our local star would disappear within a hundred million years."—*John Gribbin, "The Curious Case of the Shrinking Sun," New Scientist, March 3, 1983.
"Geological evidence, however, indicates that the terrestrial crust [our earth’s rock strata] has an age of several billion years, and it is surely to be expected that the sun is at least as old as the earth . . We must conclude that . . another source must be responsible for most of the energy output of a star."—*Eva Novotny, Introduction to Stellar Atmospheres and Interiors (1973), p. 248.
"The problem was to reconcile the apparent evenness of the early expansion, as indicated by the steady background radiation, with the observed large-scale structures [stars, planets, etc.]. A perfectly smooth cosmic explosion would have produced only an increasingly rarified [ever thinner] gas cloud."—*Peter Pocock and *Pat Daniels, Galaxies (1988), p. 117.
"This redshift, observed in the spectral lines of distant galaxies and interpreted as a Doppler [speed] effect, is the key to cosmology."—*Carl Sagan, Cosmos, p. 252.
"Einstein’s views of gravity led to the prediction that light emitted by a source possessing a very strong gravitational field should be displaced toward the red (the Einstein shift)."—*Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s New Guide to Science, 1984, p. 50.
“Such a condition [these red shifts] would imply "that we occupy a unique position in the universe,…But the unwelcome supposition of a favored location must be avoided at all costs…[it] is intolerable…moreover, it represents a discrepancy with the [big bang] theory because the theory postulates homogeneity.” E. Hubble, The Observational Approach to Cosmology, Clarendon, Oxford, 1937
“There is now very firm evidence that redshifts of galaxies are quantized. . .”W. G. Tifft and W. J. Cocke, “Global Redshift Quantization,” Astrophysical Journal, 1984
"The fact that measured values of redshifts do not vary continuously but come in steps – certain preferred values – is so unexpected that conventional astronomy has never been able to accept it, in spite of the overwhelming observational evidence.”Halton Arp (staff astronomer at Mt. Wilson and Palomar observatories for 29 years), Quasars, Redshifts, and Controversies, 1987, p. 195
“Quantized redshifts just don’t fit into this view of the cosmos, for they imply concentric shells of galaxies expanding away from a central point – earth! Even though more recent redshift data have supported the notion of quantized redshifts, cosmologists find them undigestible, even pathogenic.”
“Quantized Redshifts: What’s Going on Here?”
Sky and Telescope, 84:128, 1992
“. . .the redshift distribution has been found to be strongly quantized in the galactocentric frame of reference. The phenomenon is easily seen by eye and apparently cannot be ascribed to statistical artifacts, selection procedures or flawed reduction techniques.” W. Napler and B. Guthrie, “Quantized Redshifts: A Status Report,” Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, 1997
"If a set of fine scales is arranged so that one scale is kept dark, and light is allowed to fall on the other, the lighted scale will sink slowly. Light has ‘weight.’ The pressure of light on the Earth’s surface is calculated as two pounds per square mile [90 kg per 2.6 km2]."—*Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Book of Facts (1979), p. 330.
"The solar system used to be a simple place, before any spacecraft ventured forth from the Earth . . But 30 years of planetary exploration have replaced the simple picture with a far more complex image. ‘The most striking outcome of planetary exploration is the diversity of the planets,’ says planetary physicist David Stevenson of the California Institute of Technology. Ross Taylor of the Australian National University agrees: ‘If you look at all the planets and the 60 or so satellites [moons], it’s very hard to find two that are the same.’ "—*Richard A. Kerr, "The Solar System’s New Diversity," Science 265, September 2, 1994, p. 1360. [150 moons now known.]
"We see that material torn from the sun would not be at all suitable for the formation of the planets as we know them. Its composition would be hopelessly wrong."—*Fred Hoyle, "Where the Earth Came from," Harper’s, March 1951, p. 65.
"To the surprise of scientists [after the Apollo moon landings], the chemical makeup of the moon rocks is distinctly different from that of rocks on Earth. This difference implies that the moon formed under different conditions. Prof [A.G.W.] Cameron explains, and means that any theory on the origin of the planets now will have to create the moon and the earth in different ways."—*J.E. Bishop, "New Theories of Creation," Science Digest 72, October 1972, p. 42.
"The moon is always falling. It has a sideways motion of its own that balances its falling motion. It therefore stays in a closed orbit about the Earth, never falling altogether and never escaping altogether."—*Isaac Asimov’s Book of Facts (1979), p. 400.
"Now the moon’s elliptical motion around the earth can be split into horizontal and vertical components. The vertical component is such that, in the space of a second, the moon falls a trifle more than 1/20 inch [.127 cm] toward the earth. In that time, it also moves about 3300 feet [1001 m] in the horizontal direction, just far enough to compensate for the fall and carry it around the earth’s curvature."—*Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s New Guide to Science (1984), pp. 873-874.
"The Symposium has also served in delineating the areas of our ignorance, in particular in relation with the hydrodynamics of the nebula [motions of gas clouds], and with the physicochemistry of the ‘sticking process’ [getting gas together into stars and planets]."—*Symposium Statement, quoted in R.E. Kofahi and K.L. Segraves, The Creation Explanation, p. 141.
" Yet to be discussed adequately is the detailed fragmentation of the massive cloud in which protostars are born.  Also in question are the hydrodynamics and stability considerations of the protosun nebula.  Most important, there remain to be specified the crucial experimental tests that can distinguish between the available viable theories.  It is particularly disappointing that we have almost no useful information on the specific solid state processes at work in the accretion phase."—*Review of Nice Symposium, quoted in op. cit., p. 143.
"Do the sun and planets originate in the same interstellar cloud? If so, how was the planetary matter separated from the solar gas? How massive was the nebula? How did the collapsing cloud cross the thermal, magnetic, and angular momentum barriers? What were the physical conditions in the nebula? What was the mechanism of condensation and accretion [of gas into stars, planets, etc.]? How did the planets, with their present properties and solar distances, form?"—*Ibid.
"A handful of sand contains about 10,000 grains, more than the number of stars we can see on a clear night. But the number of stars we can see is only a fraction of the number of stars that are [there] . . The cosmos is rich beyond measure: the total number of stars in the universe is greater than all the grains of sand on all the beaches on the planet earth."—*Carl Sagan, Cosmos, 1980.
"The universe we see when we look out to its farthest horizons contains a hundred billion galaxies. Each of these galaxies contains another hundred billion stars. That’s 1022 stars all told. The silent embarrassment of modern astrophysics is that we do not know how even a single one of these stars managed to form."—*Martin Harwit, "Book Reviews," Science, March 1986, pp. 1201-1202.
"The problem of explaining the existence of the galaxies has proved to be one of the thorniest in cosmology. By all rights, they just shouldn’t be there, yet there they sit. It’s hard to convey the depth of frustration that this simple fact induces among scientists."—*James Trefil, Dark Side of the Universe (1988), p. 55.
"If stars did not exist, it would be easy to prove that this is what we expect."—*G.R. Burbidge, quoted by *R.L. Sears and *Robert R. Brownlee (eds: *L.H. Aller and *D. McLaughlin) Stellar Structures (1963), p. 577.
"But if we had a reliable theory of the origin of planets, if we knew of some mechanism consistent with the laws of physics so that we understood how planets form, then clearly we could make use of it to estimate the probability that other stars have attendant planets. However no such theory exists yet, despite the large number of hypotheses suggested."—*R.A. Lyttleton, Mysteries of the Solar System (1968), p. 4.
"I suspect that the sun is 4.5 billion years old. However, given some new and unexpected results to the contrary, and some time for frantic recalculation and theoretical readjustment, I suspect that we could live with Bishop Ussher’s value for the age of the Earth and Sun [4004 B.C.]. I don’t think we have much in the way of observational evidence in astronomy to conflict with that."—*John Eddy, Geotimes (1978).